So you can photo copulatory marks as well as the male genital morphology of each and every varieties, i reached men and women genitalia courtesy dissections. For this reason, i tested additional queens (each other virgin and you can physogastric mated of those) and additional freshly emerged guys of every species, after the exact same testing requirements previously demonstrated (comprehend the early in the day parts). We after that dissected per specimens’ metasoma to access the fresh new vaginal region of women and you may boys. Immediately following dissection, we instantaneously shoot these formations to ensure the ethics out-of membranous architecture, particularly in females. Dissections observed the method before demonstrated from inside the Vaginal functional morphology, hypothesized plugging measures and you may mating positions. Ultimately, we made use of a beneficial Leica DM a lot of stereomicroscope, combined with an attracting tubing to arrange this new graphics of your own mating couple (?20 magnification, Vaginal useful morphology, hypothesized plugging measures and you will mating ranks) as well as the vaginal functional morphology (?80 magnification, Genital practical morphology, hypothesized plugging actions and you will mating positions). We vectorized and you may addressed these types of design having fun with a photo editor software. We and utilized a Leica DFC420 camera connected with good Leica M205A stereomicroscope to help make high-solution photo of females and males genitalia (?1.0 contact lens and you may ?50 magnification, Area 2.4). First, we got multifocus color photo, next i loaded them in a single image by using the Leica software collection variation 3.cuatro.step one. I regular this method per genitalia (male and female) out-of the sampled stingless bee variety, however, one, M. melapling constraints.
Harrowing mating into the stingless bees
No melanized spots were seen from inside the inspected unmated fuckbook profiles virgin queens. Throughout kinds, physogastric queens showed melanized spots to their membranous purse ( Desk 1), except for Yards. fasciculata ( Profile step 1). The brand new membranous pouches were really the only part with copulatory scratching. Inside the for every single mated queen, spots had been always coordinated, coordinating new inferred reputation of your own group of knob valves from inside the the male genital tablet. Spots were situated on each pocket, and you will symmetrically organized ( Profile step one). On the other hand, melanized spots appeared as if long lasting, because the we noticed her or him when you look at the mated queens of various ages, centered on all of our wing wear group ( Supplementary Contour S3 ).
Ladies vaginal chamber, development away from copulatory scratches, and you may ventral view of men vaginal drugs away from F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, M. seminigra, and M. fasciculata. Off remaining so you can best, photos show the latest genital chamber regarding virgin queens, this new genital chamber regarding mated queens, additionally the melanized spots found on queens, being indicated by the light arrows regarding the 3rd column regarding pictures. Singly mated queens inform you just one pair of melanized patches, shown to own F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, Meters. flavolineata, and you will Yards. seminigra; or a long-title attached connect, simply utilized in M. fasciculata. Remated M. seminigra queens, conveyed because of the black asterisk, let you know numerous pairs of melanized patches and you will central spots. Regarding the right hand number of photo, men supplements is actually displayed because the triggered mating plugs just for Melipona types, showing rotated dick valves. I including inform you an enthusiastic inactivated mating connect to have Yards. fasciculata, due to the fact conveyed by white asterisk. Black colored bars show a level out of 0.5 mm. This contour boasts photos off six of all of our 7 read species (select Thing and methods).
Women vaginal chamber, pattern out-of copulatory scratches, and you may ventral look at men vaginal medications of F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, Yards. seminigra, and you will Meters. fasciculata. Out-of leftover so you’re able to correct, images tell you the latest genital chamber regarding virgin queens, the fresh genital chamber of mated queens, as well as the melanized spots found on queens, which are shown of the white arrows throughout the third column away from pictures. Singly mated queens reveal a single set of melanized spots, found getting F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, M. flavolineata, and M. seminigra; or a lengthy-name attached connect, merely used in Meters. fasciculata. Remated M. seminigra queens, indicated by the black asterisk, inform you several pairs out-of melanized spots and you may main spots. On right hand selection of photo, men capsules try displayed as triggered mating plugs only for Melipona variety, proving rotated knob valves. We also tell you an enthusiastic inactivated mating plug to own Meters. fasciculata, due to the fact indicated by the white asterisk. Black colored taverns portray a level away from 0.5 mm. This profile is sold with photos out-of 6 of the eight studied types (look for Situation and techniques).